The Hindu Valley, located in Lehah, near Ladakh, India. Image of KennyOMG / Wikipedia
Climate change, of course, was one of the key factors that forced people to leave the Indus River flood, a new study by the Woods Ooleographic Observation Institution (WHOI) researchers said.
The Hindu field civilization has appeared 4,000 years ago on the slopes of the Indus River in modern India and Pakistan.
The civilization is more than one million square kilometers away from the Arabian Sea to Gang, Pakistan, North-West India, and even to the east of Afghanistan. This magnificent, but popular city culture includes parts of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
The Hindu field civilization volume, 2600-1900BCE. Sue McIntosh by Wikipedia
Harappa's culture was named Harappa – one of the largest cities in the Hindu civilization on the Ravi River. Residents of this culture lived near the rivers and used fertile plains to ensure their survival. However, this cultivated culture slowly disappeared 3,900 and 3,000 years ago.
The WHOI researchers' new study Residents of the Harppa culture prove that their cities were abandoned in 1800 and moved to small villages in the Himalayan mountains.
Migration began about 2500 years ago, and sudden changes in the indigenous area made it difficult for agriculture in the region. Climate change caused a rainstorm in the Indian Valley and slowly dried up. However, the winter rains were normal at the foot of the mountain.
According to the WHO geologist Liviu Giosan, winter rainfall in the foothills of the Indus Valley was less than the number of summer mussels in comparison to the flood, but at least they were "safe".
Soil patterns were difficult to find in the group to switch to seasonal precipitation. Instead, they analyzed the sediment samples collected from the ocean floor in different parts of the Arabian Sea. They explored the feminin (or "proteins") shells – single cell plankton – in the sediment to know how much they grew in winter and what was in the summer.
Researchers then studied the ancient genetic material (Paleo-DNA) stored in sediments. The analysis led to the weakening of the summer monsoons by the end of the Harappanian civilization, and the winter monsoons grew stronger and forced the population to move from large cities to smaller villages.
However, researchers are not convinced that this migration will end soon or hundreds of years.
"It is impossible to say that the climate has disappeared, and the Indo-Arya culture has come to the region with the tools and horses of the Iron Age, but the winter monsoon played a role," says Jozan.
The results of the research are published in the journal Past Climate.