The new insulin was developed by researchers at the University of California in the United States and published its findings in the latest issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Insulin is a hormone that the body naturally produces in the pancreas and helps the body regulate glucose, which is consumed through food and gives energy to the body.
Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce a naturally occurring insulin, such as type 1 diabetes, or does not produce it as efficiently as in type 2 diabetes. In both cases, a regular dose of insulin is prescribed to treat a disease affecting more than 400 million people worldwide .
Generally, people who need insulin are used to monitor glucose glucose levels in a glucose meter or in a continuous glucose control system, and then calculate the dose of insulin accordingly.
In addition, it is common to limit the intake of carbohydrates to maintain a normal blood sugar level, which is prone to human error that can have serious consequences.
Insulin overdosage can cause hypoglycaemia, when blood sugar is too low, and can lead to coma or death in extreme cases.
In order to avoid this problem, the team has developed a kind of "intelligent" insulin called i-insulin, which can prevent a significant decrease in blood sugar levels.
To be different from conventional insulin, the research team added an additional molecule to a new intelligent insulin called a glucose transfer inhibitor, which controls the level of glucose in the cells and does not allow them to significantly decrease.
"Our new insulin functions as a smart switch that allows glucose to enter the cell, but prevents glucose from entering high blood cells when blood sugar is normal, which keeps blood sugar levels at normal levels and reduces risk," says Dr. Chen Ju, leader of the research team. Hypoglycaemia ".
"This insulin can also quickly respond to high glucose levels, for example, after a meal, when glucose levels rise."
Intelligent insulin was tested in mice with Type 1 diabetes and managed to control normal glucose levels up to 10 hours after injection of a new insulin dose.
He noted that the next step is the continuation of the evaluation of the new insulin on animal models, before we move on to clinical trials on humans.
According to the World Health Organization, Type 2 diabetes occurs due to overweight and physical inactivity, and in time high blood sugar can increase the risk of heart disease, blindness, neurology and kidney failure.
In contrast, type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's immune system destroys cells that control blood sugar levels, most of which are in children.